ESRs Overview

Host Country: Spain

Work Package: WP1

Title of ESR Project: Bioaccumulation of P from organic rich waste water and drying to a P-rich biosolid fertiliser.

PABLO BINDER

ESR1: BIOACCUMULATION OF PHOSPHORUS (P) FROM ORGANIC RICH WASTE WATER AND DRYING TO A P-RICH BIOSOLID FERTILISER

Pablo is an Argentinian PhD student at Universitat de Vic – BETA Tech. Center.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR1 is the optimisation of enhanced biological phosphorous removal (EBPR) for nutrient removal at lab and pilot scale.
  • Investigate the effect of the main operational parameters on the P
    recovery rate.
  • Optimise of a sequential batch reactor (SBR) for simultaneous nitrificationdenitrification and phosphorus (P) removal (SNDPR), P accumulation and recovery.
  • Will couple a biodrying system to the SBR reactor as to obtain a dry solid which can be used either as a P-rich direct fertiliser or as a source of high quality and renewable solid fuel (RSF) as alternatives to nonrenewable fossil fuels.
Expected results:

Recovery of >95% soluble P from dairy effluent and the production of high-quality Prich biomass that can be used as fertiliser.

Host Country: Spain

Work Package: WP1

Title of ESR Project: Anaerobic membrane process optimisation for the production of a P-rich concentrate from organic effluent.

IPAN HIDAYAT

ESR2: ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE PROCESS OPTIMISATION FOR THE PRODUCTION OF A P-RICH CONCENTRATE FROMORGANIC EFFLUENT

Ipan is an Indonesian PhD student at Universitat de Vic – BETA Tech. Center.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR2 is to develop, optimise and evaluate process performance of AnMBR coupled with freeze concentration (FC) for the production of a P-rich concentrate from DPW.
  • Determine the efficiency and optimal operational parameters for a laboratory scale AnMBR.
  • Select the proper membrane properties as well as the optimal operating parameters including transmembrane flux, crossflow velocity, membrane filtration cycle and membrane cleaning method by biogas sparging frequency.
  • Optimise the freeze concentration process has been tested and optimised at laboratory scale, the system will be scaled up at the pilot scale. The pilot plant will be operated at the optimal operation conditions obtained at laboratory scale.
  • Determine the efficiency and robustness of the proposed technology (AnMBR-FC) at pilot scale as well as the sustainability (LCA, LCC) for this coupled technology.
Expected results:

Recover >90% of P from DWP using AnMBR coupled with freeze concentration, understand the underlying technical set-up of pilot scale AnMBR-FC and comprehend the of the final products.

Host Country: Ireland

Work Package: WP1

Title of ESR Project: Hydrothermal carbonisation of P-rich organic waste.

NIDAL KHALAF

ESR3: HYDROTHERMAL CARBONISATION OF P - RICH ORGANIC WASTE

Nidal is a Palestinian PhD student at the University of Limerick-Department of Chemical Sciences and Engineering.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR3 is to assess the possibility of integrating acid catalysis as an option for optimising the yield of Hydrothermal Carbonisation (HTC) and the overall economic efficiency of the process.
  • The effects of processing conditions such as temperature, residence time and biomass/water ratio will be studied.
  • Assessment on the characteristics and yield of the solid and liquid products for further optimisation of the HTC process will be done.
  • Focus on the organic and inorganic contents of both solid and liquid products, with more emphasis on the phosphorous components.
  • Techniques for the recovery of P will be taken into account, with special attention paid to enhanced biological phosphorous removal.
Expected results:

Develop an optimised software model for the hydrothermal carbonisation of dairy sludge. The model will act as a guideline for the experimental procedure that will validate the results expected in the model.

Host Country: Ireland

Work Package: WP1

Title of ESR Project: Effects of temperature and stoichiometric oxygen on the mineralisation of P-rich organic biosolids.

JAROSŁAW CHUDZICKI

ESR4: EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND STOICHIOMETRIC OXYGENON THE MINERALISATION OF P-RICH ORGANIC BIOSOLIDS

Jarosław Chudzicki is a PhD student at the University of Limerick
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR4 is to collect dairyprocessing waste (DPW) samples fromdairies and characterize their fuelproperties.
  • Investigate effects of temperature andstoichiometric oxygen on C content andphosphorous speciation duringincineration of DPW sludge usingthermogravimetric analysis andcontrolled fixed bed thermal oxidizers.
  • Undertake trials of DPW biosolids in a250kW bubbling fluidized bed (up to(900°C). Analyze ash from the bed,cyclone, and baghouse filter and forphosphorous species and contaminantheavy metals. Undertake carbon, ashand P mass balance.
  • Determine composition of mineral fractionand proportion of organic P, inorganic P, andapatite P.
  • Thermodynamic equilibrium modeling usingFactsage and empirical data to predict thegaseous and particulate inorganic speciesliberated during incineration of DPW and theirsubsequent reactions downstream of thecombustor.
Expected results:

Report of low temperatureincineration of DPW biosolids producing amineral ash. Thorough characterisation of Pspeciation and heavy metal partitioning with theFBC unit processes. Thermodynamic equilibriummodel of P mineralisation and heavy metalpartitioning as a function of temperature andstoichiometric oxygen.

Host Country: Poland

Work Package: WP1

Title of ESR Project: Struvite precipitation from organic waste.

CLAVER NUMVIYIMANA

ESR5: STRUVITE PRECIPITATION FROM ORGANIC WASTE

Claver is a Rwandan PhD student at Politechnika Wroclawska, Faculty of Chemistry, Advanced material technologies.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR5 is to investigate the recovery of P in form of Struvite from dairy processing waste (DPW) and liquors produced from hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) of DPW.
  • Review P recovery from dairy waste, mineralisation aspects and struvite precipitation.
  • Create experimental models for P recovery as struvite from dairy processing wastes and use of recovered phosphorous as fertiliser.
Expected results:

P removal of up to 95% mainly as struvite and other phosphate salts from dairy processing waste and assess the quality of precipitated solid as fertiliser.

Host Country: Ireland

Work Package: WP1

Title of ESR Project: Production of high purity Phosphoric acid from ash.

VISHAL ZENDE

ESR6: PRODUCTION OF HIGH PURITY PHOSPHORIC ACID FROM ASH

Vishal is an Indian PhD student at the University of Limerick-Department of Chemical Sciences and Engineering.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR6 is to deliver a cost-effective P-recycling process to produce phosphoric acid of high purity from DPW ash.
  • Identify source of impurities.
  • Determine optimal processing conditions for ash dissolution and P release as phosphoric acid.
  • Change operating conditions (temperature, %P2O5, %SO3), for α-hemihydrate conversion to dihydrate to achieve purification of unreacted and co-crystallised P2O5.
  • Preparing heat and mass balance sheets based on data obtained.
  • Test purity of phosphoric acid and optimise purification processes e.g., co-precipitation or ion-exchange.
  • Pilot scale tests based on results obtained from laboratory scale experiments.
  • Extrapolation of acceptable raw materials in the futureestimation of the availability of raw material (DPW ash) and develop a business case.
Expected results:

A model related to the role of temperature and stoechiometric oxygen to P-ash chemistry will be developed.

Host Country: France

Work Package: WP2

Title of ESR Project: Impact of exogenous organic matter in fertilisers on Soil microbes.

ÁNGEL VELASCO SÁNCHEZ

ESR7: IMPACT OF EXOGENOUS ORGANIC MATTER IN FERTILISERS ON SOIL MICROBES

Ángel is a Spanish PhD student at UniLaSalle, department of Aghyle.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR7 is to study the effects of different P-fertilisers recovered from dairy waste on soil microbial communities.
  • Study the effect on microbial communities after the application of the different fertilisers from dairy sludge.
  • Explore the effects of REFLOW fertilisers and other P fertilisers on the communication pathways among plant roots and microbial communities.
  • Study the effect of REFLOW fertilisers on soil fungal communities and soil fauna.
  • Study the survival in soil and plant tissues of human pathogens in dairy waste.
Expected results:

An understanding of how reflow fertilisers may affect soil microbial biomass, diversity and activity.

Host Country: Denmark

Work Package: WP2

Title of ESR Project: Nitrogen transformation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from soils amended with dairy processing waste (DPW) and derived fertiliser products.

YIHUAI HU

ESR8: NITROGEN TRANSFORMATION AND GREENHOUSE GAS (GHG) EMISSIONS FROM SOILS AMENDED WITH DAIRY PROCESSING WASTE (DPW) AND DERIVED FERTILISER PRODUCTS.

Yihuai is a Chinese PhD student at Aarhus University, Department of Engineering.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR8 is to explore the nitrogen use efficiency of DPW and derived fertiliser products, and GHG emissions from the use of biofertilisers, to provide guidance on the application of biofertilisers and mitigation of GHG emissions.
Expected results:

A reduction in GHG emission from agricultural management chains of biofertiliser application, report on quantifying the transformation of N and net mineralisation of biofertilisers compared to untreated DPW, and report of estimating N mineral fertiliser equivalent value of biofertilisers.

Host Country: Ireland

Work Package: WP2

Title of ESR Project: Modeling soil P dynamics and P cycling in soils amended with organic waste.

OLHA KHOMENKO

ESR9: MODELING SOIL P DYNAMICS AND P CYCLING IN SOILS AMENDED WITH ORGANIC WASTE.

Olha is a Ukrainian PhD student at the University of Limerick and Teagasc.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR9 is to evaluate the impact of DPW application on soil P pools and availability, soil P dynamics and access risk of P losses due to leaching.
  • Bench top, pot, and field scale experiments will be conducted to study interactions between native soil P and P delivered from DPW.
  • Bench top experiment will involve experiments with autoclaved and live soil, and the main target of the experiment is to investigate soil P dynamics in the soil.
  • Pot and field scale experiments involving ryegrass growing in soils undergoing different DPW treatments will allow to measure soil P dynamics and transformation in temperate soil under real condition in conjunction with grass growth.
Expected results:

A model of chemical and biological interaction will be established using data from isotope studies and NMR analysis, and soil enzyme activity.

Host Country: Ireland

Work Package: WP3

Title of ESR Project: Fertiliser equivalence value (FEV) of organic fertilizers and their application in Smart Farming.

WENXUAN SHI

ESR10: FERTILISER EQUIVALENCE VALUE (FEV) OF ORGANIC FERTILIZERS AND THEIR APPLICATION IN SMART FARMING.

Wenxuan is a Chinese PhD student at Teagasc and NUI Galway.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR10 is to develop new technologies to recover phosphorous for new fertilisers from DPW and establish their value and challenges on the environment, society, food safety and the economy.
  • Collect DPW and REFLOW fertilisers for physical and chemical characteristics.
  • Validate the FEV (N/P/K) of REFLOW fertilisers.
  • Determine the optimum mode for application.
Expected results:

Develop a smart app for farmers and agricultural advisors for application of these bio-based products.

Host Country: Sweden

Work Package: WP3

Title of ESR Project: Life Cycle Assessment of production and application of fertiliser products.

MARTA BEHJAT

ESR11: LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF PRODUCTION AND APPLICATION OF FERTILISER PRODUCTS.

Marta is an Italian PhD student at Chalmers Technology University.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR11 is to perform an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and integrate various indicators in a sustainability assessment in order to direct technological development in the REFLOW project and compare against benchmark technologies.
  • Assessment of three subsystems: dairy production, wastewater treatment technology associated with P-recovery technology and production and use of new fertilisers.
Expected results:

With the correct selection of environmental indicators and the adoption of the LCA method, this work will assess the technologies, identify environmental hotspots and compare the developed technologies against the
alternatives.

Host Country: Belgium

Work Package: WP3

Title of ESR Project: Development of new financial models for the circular (bio)economy.

SERGIO GARMENDIA LEMUS

ESR13: DEVELOPMENT OF NEW FINANCIAL MODELS FOR THE CIRCULAR (BIO)ECONOMY.

Sergio is a Mexican PhD student at the University of Ghent at the department of Agricultural
Economics and ELO.
Research goals and focus:
  • The aim of ESR13 is to encompass survey design, application and analysis, followed by financial modelling.
  • Exploration of needs and requirements across the stakeholder chain in order to define business models that will distribute a new fertiliser value in a sustainable manner.
  • Close collaboration with most researchers involved in the project.
Expected results:

Outputs from this research will serve as a base for decisions towards market accessibility, potential business cases and the distribution of social benefits of REFLOW products, as well as recommendations over financial configurations that will give certainty to potential investors and interested sectors.